2022年12月12日 4:26 PM #63862Pesonenゲスト
Libby Thomas, Paul Ryus, Conor Semler, Nathan J. Federal Highway Administration, U. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, May 2015, 67 p. The purpose of this study was to identify noteworthy and innovative international designs, treatments, and otherpractices that have potential to improve bicycle and pedestrian safety and access and increase walking and bicyclingin the United States. A number of treatments and practices appear to have significant potential to help improvebicycle and pedestrian network safety, comfort, and connectivity in the U. The Portfolio of Measures describes the actual effects of different types of measures on congestion by presenting case studies and drawing conclusions out of them. The portfolio presents information on the potential of walking and cycling measures to relieve urban congestion. Cities are actively seeking information and implementation experience from other cities. In providing more information on the impact of walking and cycling measures, this portfolio aims at contributing to political agenda setting and measure selection. The first part of the portfolio provides some general findings about the role of walking and cycling measures in relieving congestion, based on literature review and an expert survey carried out within the FLOW project. It is then followed by 20 cases in which walking measures, cycling measures or combinations of measures have been successfully implemented in Europe and abroad. Mobility management and Measures for more than one mode. The final chapter summarises the effects of the 20 cases and elaborates some general lessons learned. Few studies have evaluated the effects of infrastructural improvements to promote walking and cycling. Even fewer have explored how the context and mechanisms of such interventions may interact to produce their outcomes. Cardiff, Kenilworth and Southampton. We integrated these two datasets to interpret differences across the sites consistent with a theoretical framework that hypothesised that the schemes would improve connectivity and the social environment. Patterns of use did not vary substantially between sites. Environmental perceptions at baseline were generally unfavourable, with the greatest improvements in Cardiff. Qualitative data revealed that all schemes had a recreational focus to varying extents, that the visibility of schemes to local people might be an important mechanism driving use and that the scale and design of the schemes and the contrast they presented with existing infrastructure may have influenced their use. The dominance of recreational uses may have reflected the specific local goals of some of the projects and the discontinuity of the new infrastructure from a satisfactory network of feeder routes. Greater use in Cardiff may have been driven by the mechanisms of greater visibility and superior design features within the context of an existing environment that was conducive neither to walking or cycling nor to car travel. Trials and dangers faced by pedestrians and cyclists have not only created an impression of undesirable conditions, but have promoted arguments of injustice and inequality. High rates of death and injury coupled with reporting of poor infrastructure and fear of the behaviour of other road users point to a plausible prima facie concern that pedestrians and cyclists suffer inequalities. Yet this appearance masks uncertainty about what factors are relevant in judging inequality and how these should be treated against potentially competing claims. This article develops a framework assessing conditions for walking and cycling according to a theoretical conception of political and social equality, and so providing a basis on which to make arguments for change in transport policy, planning and law. In developing the framework we examine the relevance to equality of a range of factors, including measurement of road casualties, questions of responsibility to increase walking and cycling as means of contributing to pollution and carbon reduction, matters of fault and responsibility for road safety, and the economic impacts of improving conditions for walking and cycling. Valuation of travel time savings in pedestrian and bicycle trips. In the bicycle studies effects of health aspects have alsobeen studied. All studies are questionnaire studies conducted with stated preference techniques. The results show that the valuation of travel time savings are lower when cycling on a bicyclepath than when cycling on a road way in either mixed traffic or in a bicycle lane in theroadway. Cycling on a path next to the road was not considering worse than cycling on a pathnot in connection to the road, indicating that the respondents did not take traffic noise and airpollution into account in their decision to cycle. Respondents who included health aspects intheir choice to cycle had lower value of travel time savings for cycling than respondents thatstated that health aspects were of less filexlib.
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